The two things necessary for a good marriage are sex and money, observes a key character in Shaadi Mein Zaroor Aana. Both feature in strange ways in Ratnaa Sinha’s debut movie,whichsets up its plot with confidence and coherence before going off the rails in spectacular and painful fashion.
Money drives a couple apart, and a sadomasochistic attachment to each other keeps them in each other’s orbit in the latest study of aspiration and prejudice in small-town India. The arranged marriage between Kanpurites Arti (Kriti Kharbanda) and Satyendra (Rajkummar Rao) fosters love even before the nuptials. Taking a cue from the 1990s movies that both adore, the pair quickly progress through the various stages of romance. They are at the point where the man asks the woman if he can kiss her and she nearly obliges – before turning her head away at the right moment so that he can sink his lips into her eyebrows instead.
Arti and Satyendra are too distracted to notice – or care – that Arti’s father (KK Raina) is pushing himself into debt to pay her Rs 25-lakh dowry. Satyendra readily agrees to Arti’s request (a plea, really) that she be allowed to work after the wedding and conveniently forgets that his mother despises working women. Arti is too lovestruck to wonder how she, an aspiring government officer, will remain satisfied with Satyendra’s status as a government clerk, and she doesn’t object to the dowry demand either.
Despite the niggling problems at the script level, the pre-interval section holds firm because of the smooth direction and solid performances. Eventually, egged on by her sister Abha (Nayani Dixit), Arti flees what seemed to have been a match made in hell, only to enter another netherworld – the one in which her story fades into insignificance and is overtaken by the man’s.
The money bits done, the movie moves into an unequal war of the sexes. The post-interval section is a torturous account of Satyendra’s vengeance against Arti, extracted through the good offices of the government. Satyendra has elevated himself to officer status and is overseeing corruption allegations against Arti. He uses his superior position to harass Arti in countless ways and even propositions her, all to avenge his humiliation. Satyendra is as willing a sadist as Arti is a whimpering masochist, who all but clings to her master’s feet to retain her job and get back into his heart.
The outrage over the dowry demand against Arti is forgotten during the plummet into unintended farce; her ambition to be an officer nullified by her flight; Satyendra’s spite legimitised by his sense of hurt.
Rajkummar Rao is characteristically effective as the lovelorn clerk whose heart hardens after rejection, and his job is made easier by Kriti Kharbanda’s watered-down character and weak acting skills. The surrounding cast, including Govind Namdeo and Manoj Pahwa, provide adequate back-up, and Nayani Dixit is especially good as the older sister who unsuccessfully tries to infuse feminist ideals into Abha. For a movie that does a better job of balancing a jilted groom’s hurt pride with the almost-bride’s professional ambitions, watch Badrinath Ki Dulhania, released earlier this year.
Behind the garb of wealth and success, white collar criminals are hiding in plain sight
Understanding the forces that motivate leaders to become fraudsters.
Most con artists are very easy to like; the ones that belong to the corporate society, even more so. The Jordan Belforts of the world are confident, sharp and can smooth-talk their way into convincing people to bend at their will. For years, Harshad Mehta, a practiced con-artist, employed all-of-the-above to earn the sobriquet “big bull” on Dalaal Street. In 1992, the stockbroker used the pump and dump technique, explained later, to falsely inflate the Sensex from 1,194 points to 4,467. It was only after the scam that journalist Sucheta Dalal, acting on a tip-off, broke the story exposing how he fraudulently dipped into the banking system to finance a boom that manipulated the stock market.
In her book ‘The confidence game’, Maria Konnikova observes that con artists are expert storytellers - “When a story is plausible, we often assume it’s true.” Harshad Mehta’s story was an endearing rags-to-riches tale in which an insurance agent turned stockbroker flourished based on his skill and knowledge of the market. For years, he gave hope to marketmen that they too could one day live in a 15,000 sq.ft. posh apartment with a swimming pool in upmarket Worli.
One such marketman was Ketan Parekh who took over Dalaal Street after the arrest of Harshad Mehta. Ketan Parekh kept a low profile and broke character only to celebrate milestones such as reaching Rs. 100 crore in net worth, for which he threw a lavish bash with a star-studded guest-list to show off his wealth and connections. Ketan Parekh, a trainee in Harshad Mehta’s company, used the same infamous pump-and-dump scheme to make his riches. In that, he first used false bank documents to buy high stakes in shares that would inflate the stock prices of certain companies. The rise in stock prices lured in other institutional investors, further increasing the price of the stock. Once the price was high, Ketan dumped these stocks making huge profits and causing the stock market to take a tumble since it was propped up on misleading share prices. Ketan Parekh was later implicated in the 2001 securities scam and is serving a 14-years SEBI ban. The tactics employed by Harshad Mehta and Ketan Parekh were similar, in that they found a loophole in the system and took advantage of it to accumulate an obscene amount of wealth.
Call it greed, addiction or smarts, the 1992 and 2001 Securities Scams, for the first time, revealed the magnitude of white collar crimes in India. To fill the gaps exposed through these scams, the Securities Laws Act 1995 widened SEBI’s jurisdiction and allowed it to regulate depositories, FIIs, venture capital funds and credit-rating agencies. SEBI further received greater autonomy to penalise capital market violations with a fine of Rs 10 lakhs.
Despite an empowered regulatory body, the next white-collar crime struck India’s capital market with a massive blow. In a confession letter, Ramalinga Raju, ex-chairman of Satyam Computers convicted of criminal conspiracy and financial fraud, disclosed that Satyam’s balance sheets were cooked up to show an excess of revenues amounting to Rs. 7,000 crore. This accounting fraud allowed the chairman to keep the share prices of the company high. The deception, once revealed to unsuspecting board members and shareholders, made the company’s stock prices crash, with the investors losing as much as Rs. 14,000 crores. The crash of India’s fourth largest software services company is often likened to the bankruptcy of Enron - both companies achieved dizzying heights but collapsed to the ground taking their shareholders with them. Ramalinga Raju wrote in his letter “it was like riding a tiger, not knowing how to get off without being eaten”, implying that even after the realisation of consequences of the crime, it was impossible for him to rectify it.
It is theorised that white-collar crimes like these are highly rationalised. The motivation for the crime can be linked to the strain theory developed by Robert K Merton who stated that society puts pressure on individuals to achieve socially accepted goals (the importance of money, social status etc.). Not having the means to achieve those goals leads individuals to commit crimes.
Take the case of the executive who spent nine years in McKinsey as managing director and thereafter on the corporate and non-profit boards of Goldman Sachs, Procter & Gamble, American Airlines, and Harvard Business School. Rajat Gupta was a figure of success. Furthermore, his commitment to philanthropy added an additional layer of credibility to his image. He created the American India Foundation which brought in millions of dollars in philanthropic contributions from NRIs to development programs across the country. Rajat Gupta’s descent started during the investigation on Raj Rajaratnam, a Sri-Lankan hedge fund manager accused of insider trading. Convicted for leaking confidential information about Warren Buffet’s sizeable investment plans for Goldman Sachs to Raj Rajaratnam, Rajat Gupta was found guilty of conspiracy and three counts of securities fraud. Safe to say, Mr. Gupta’s philanthropic work did not sway the jury.
The people discussed above have one thing in common - each one of them was well respected and celebrated for their industry prowess and social standing, but got sucked down a path of non-violent crime. The question remains - Why are individuals at successful positions willing to risk it all? The book Why They Do It: Inside the mind of the White-Collar Criminal based on a research by Eugene Soltes reveals a startling insight. Soltes spoke to fifty white collar criminals to understand their motivations behind the crimes. Like most of us, Soltes expected the workings of a calculated and greedy mind behind the crimes, something that could separate them from regular people. However, the results were surprisingly unnerving. According to the research, most of the executives who committed crimes made decisions the way we all do–on the basis of their intuitions and gut feelings. They often didn’t realise the consequences of their action and got caught in the flow of making more money.
The arena of white collar crimes is full of commanding players with large and complex personalities. Billions, starring Damien Lewis and Paul Giamatti, captures the undercurrents of Wall Street and delivers a high-octane ‘ruthless attorney vs wealthy kingpin’ drama. The show looks at the fine line between success and fraud in the stock market. Bobby Axelrod, the hedge fund kingpin, skilfully walks on this fine line like a tightrope walker, making it difficult for Chuck Rhoades, a US attorney, to build a case against him.