Kadam Kadam Badhaye Ja, which was composed as a marching tune for Subhash Chandra Bose’s Indian National Army, has been consistently used in Hindi films to convey patriotic emotion. Everyone from C Ramachandra and Lata Mangeshkar in Samadhi (1950) to AR Rahman for Shyam Benegal’s Bose: The Forgotten Hero (2005) has had a take on the classic tune. It was even used in an unintentionally hilarious scene in Manoj Kumar’s Clerk (1989), in which a son cures his aging father, a former soldier, of heart disease by playing the song on a stereo.
The latest reinvention comes by way of Tigmanshu Dhulia’s Raag Desh, a period drama about the INA trials in Delhi in 1945. The July 28 release stars Kunal Roy Kapoor, Amit Sadh and Mohit Marwah as the three soldiers who are on trial, and Kenny Basumatary as Bose. The song Hawaon Mein Woh Aag Hai in the film, which is sung by KK and Shreya Ghoshal, talks of the burning passion of soldiers before reaching a crescendo and morphing into Kadam Kadam Badhaye Ja.
The marching song, which is a fiery call to soldiers to come together, was originally composed by Ram Singh, the bandmaster of INA. The military unit was formed with soldiers of the British Indian Army, who had been taken captive by the Imperial Japanese Army in a battle in Singapore. Singh, who died in 2002, was born in a village near Dharamsala in 1914. He also composed the tune for the version of the national anthem, which was initially sung as Sukh Chain Kee Barkha Barse, and was the progenitor of the present incarnation, which was sung as Qaumi Tarana by the INA in Singapore in 1943.
Bose took note of Singh’s musical talent and asked him to compose the tune that eventually became Kadam Kadam Badhaye Ja. The lyrics were by Vanshidhar Shukla. The song provided accompaniment to soldiers as they marched towards India to take on the British Army. Bose believed that INA could easily outmanoeuvre the British, but it was not to be. Plagued by inhospitable terrain and lack of supplies, they were forced to beat a retreat.
In an interview conducted shortly before his death, Singh recalled the composition of the national anthem. “Subhasji told me that the tune of Qaumi Tarana should be so powerful and inspiring that when INA soldiers render the same, it should stir the soul of not only the soldiers but millions of Indians also, as such we kept on practising the Qaumi Tarana at Deedadri camp in Singapore,” he said.
Such was the power of the song that the colonial British government wanted it banned for sedition. In 2016, 64 Netaji files were declassified by the West Bengal government, and they revealed that the British government had wanted to ban the song in 1945. Of course, it would have been too late.
Singh was later invited to perform the national anthem when Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled the Indian flag at the Red Fort on August 15, 1947.
Removing the layers of complexity that weigh down mental health in rural India
Patients in rural areas of the country face several obstacles to get to treatment.
Two individuals, with sombre faces, are immersed in conversation in a sunlit classroom. This image is the theme across WHO’s 2017 campaign ‘Depression: let’s talk’ that aims to encourage people suffering from depression or anxiety to seek help and get assistance. The fact that depression is the theme of World Health Day 2017 indicates the growing global awareness of mental health. This intensification of the discourse on mental health unfortunately coincides with the global rise in mental illness. According to the latest estimates from WHO, more than 300 million people across the globe are suffering from depression, an increase of 18% between 2005 and 2015.
In India, the National Mental Health Survey of India, 2015-16, conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) revealed the prevalence of mental disorders in 13.7% of the surveyed population. The survey also highlighted that common mental disorders including depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders affect nearly 10% of the population, with 1 in 20 people in India suffering from depression. Perhaps the most crucial finding from this survey is the disclosure of a huge treatment gap that remains very high in our country and even worse in rural areas.
According to the National Mental Health Programme, basic psychiatric care is mandated to be provided in every primary health centre – the state run rural healthcare clinics that are the most basic units of India’s public health system. The government provides basic training for all primary health centre doctors, and pays for psychiatric medication to be stocked and available to patients. Despite this mandate, the implementation of mental health services in rural parts of the country continues to be riddled with difficulties:
In some rural parts of the country, a heavy social stigma exists against mental illness – this has been documented in many studies including the NIMHANS study mentioned earlier. Mental illness is considered to be the “possession of an evil spirit in an individual”. To rid the individual of this evil spirit, patients or family members rely on traditional healers or religious practitioners. Lack of awareness on mental disorders has led to further strengthening of this stigma. Most families refuse to acknowledge the presence of a mental disorder to save themselves from the discrimination in the community.
Lack of healthcare services
The average national deficit of trained psychiatrists in India is estimated to be 77% (0.2 psychiatrists per 1,00,000 population) – this shows the scale of the problem across rural and urban India. The absence of mental healthcare infrastructure compounds the public health problem as many individuals living with mental disorders remain untreated.
The scarcity of healthcare services also means that poor families have to travel great distances to get good mental healthcare. They are often unable to afford the cost of transportation to medical centres that provide treatment.
After focussed efforts towards awareness building on mental health in India, The Live Love Laugh Foundation (TLLLF), founded by Deepika Padukone, is steering its cause towards understanding mental health of rural India. TLLLF has joined forces with The Association of People with Disability (APD), a non-governmental organisation working in the field of disability for the last 57 years to work towards ensuring quality treatment for the rural population living with mental disorders.
APD’s intervention strategy starts with surveys to identify individuals suffering from mental illnesses. The identified individuals and families are then directed to the local Primary Healthcare Centres. In the background, APD capacity building programs work simultaneously to create awareness about mental illnesses amongst community workers (ASHA workers, Village Rehabilitation Workers and General Physicians) in the area. The whole complex process involves creating the social acceptance of mental health conditions and motivating them to approach healthcare specialists.
When mental health patients are finally free of social barriers and seeking help, APD also mobilises its network to make treatments accessible and affordable. The organisation coordinates psychiatrists’ visits to camps and local healthcare centres and ensures that the necessary medicines are well stocked and free medicines are available to the patients.
We spent a lot of money for treatment and travel. We visited Shivamogha Manasa and Dharwad Hospital for getting treatment. We were not able to continue the treatment for long as we are poor. We suffered economic burden because of the long- distance travel required for the treatment. Now we are getting quality psychiatric service near our village. We are getting free medication in taluk and Primary Healthcare Centres resulting in less economic stress.
— A parent's experience at an APD treatment camp.
In the two years TLLLF has partnered with APD, 892 and individuals with mental health concerns have been treated in the districts of Kolar, Davangere, Chikkaballapur and Bijapur in Karnataka. Over 4620 students participated in awareness building sessions. TLLLF and APD have also secured the participation of 810 community health workers including ASHA workers in the mental health awareness projects - a crucial victory as these workers play an important role in spreading awareness about health. Post treatment, 155 patients have resumed their previous occupations.
To mark World Mental Health Day, 2017, a team from TLLLF lead by Deepika Padukone visited program participants in the Davengere district.
In the face of a mental health crisis, it is essential to overcome the treatment gap present across the country, rural and urban. While awareness campaigns attempt to destigmatise mental disorders, policymakers need to make treatment accessible and cost effective. Until then, organisations like TLLLF and APD are doing what they can to create an environment that acknowledges and supports people who live with mental disorders. To know more, see here.
This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of The Live Love Laugh Foundation and not by the Scroll editorial team.